Tuesday, July 23, 2019
Sociology and Friends Essay How Can I Help My Friends Realize Their Value How Can I Help My Friends Realize Their Value Words: 713 The value of friendship is said to be the greatest one among mankind. True friends make others realize their true value. Trying to make someone realize their value can be a difficult process because they might not even realize it themselves. Showing someone how important they are will result in them being a stronger person and in you being a better friend. Friends are meant to help others out in times of need and by doing so we need to show our friends their true value and accomplishing such a task may at times prove to be difficult. Having true friends is very important as it gives us the chance to get advice in times of need, a shoulder to cry on and the ability to share the happiest moments of our life. In all of this we sometimes forget to show others how important they are to us and this can degrade the friendship over a period of time. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s fast society there is just not the time to take out and relax. We live in a world that is moving at a very fast rate and taking out time for loved ones usually gets put on the back burner. We need to take out time for our friends and show them their importance but also do something genuinely for them from the bottom of our hearts. We need to put them top on our priority list because value is only given to something that is at the top of our lists. We are investing time with them and it not only shows how much time you want to spend with them but also how you truly value them. Realizing someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s importance can be hard but once we lose them it suddenly becomes clear to us. We need to give our friends respect because without respect you will not get any back and it just shows, Ã¢â¬Å"you careÃ¢â¬ . Friends share their most inanimate secrets and help each other out in times of need. This is actually a very important part in friendship because with sharing your problems with your friend it shows that you trust him or her enough to be sharing it with them in the first place. This also shows that you value their advice. You are open to them and you give them the courage to come and talk to you which shows them how important they are in your life and you challenge yourself by giving a part of yourself to them. You need to acknowledge them in such a way by showing them that they are of some importance to your life; and without them it would be difficult for you to go on in life. Show your friends that you truly appreciate them and you are grateful that they are there for you. We should stop looking for the flaws in other individuals. As a society we follow social norms and due to that we like to look for flaws in others, bring others down or show others that we are better than them. In the process of doing so we are bringing other individuals down and abating their value. We need to show our friends that we worry for them and when they are afflicted pain so are we. We need to show our support for them every step along the way and if they are in pain and suffering not look down up upon them but help them bring their head up high and give them the confidence that they are in need of. Friendship is a strong relationship that needs time and energy just like any other relationship in the world. We need to take out time for our friends and help them in desperate times of need. We need to view them as our partners instead of a burden or responsibility that we have to fill. As a society now days we view friendship as harmful at times because of fear that our friend might beat us in any competition of any kind but that is because trust is lost and when we start trusting each other and giving respect these problems will go away on their own. Give values to your friends as than they will realize their true value.
Monday, July 22, 2019
DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s Poetry Is Startling and Eccentric Essay Perhaps one of the aspects that draw us to the poetry of Dickinson is its eccentricity and startling nature. In her poetry, Emily Dickinson explores a number of different themes including death, hope, nature, pain and love. The trademark signs of a Dickinson poem are her hallmark dashes she uses. Her dashes suggest that there is more to the story than she is writing down. Another characteristic of DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry is the capitalization of random words throughout her poems. This could suggest importance of the words that she is highlighting. A large number of DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry revolves around the theme of death; both psychological and physical. She makes the reader question what our place in the universe is. Her sharply contrasting moods and her laconic images make her poems appealing to scrutinize. Evidence of DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s unique and unusual style strikes us in Ã¢â¬ËI Felt a Funeral in my BrainÃ¢â¬â¢. WeÃ¢â¬â¢re given a comprehensive look at her delicate state of mind through her magnificent imagery. Here, Dickinson compares her psychological deterioration to the rites of a funeral. The opening stanza of the poem divulges that she is in a coffin and Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢mournersÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ are going Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢to and froÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢. The Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢treading Ã¢â¬â treadingÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ of the mourners as they move Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢to and froÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ combined with the Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢beating Ã¢â¬â beatingÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ of the Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢Service like a drumÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ emphasizes her inner turmoil. The depth of her vulnerability astonishes us as she says her world is reduced to Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢And Being but an ear,Ã¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ She likens herself to a Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢strange raceÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢. We can clearly sense her isolation. I felt this was very abstract. It reminded me almost of a Picasso painting. We are left in no doubt of her deepening crisis with her startling image of the coffin crashing downwards as a Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢plank in reason, broke. And I dropped down and downÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢. I heard a Fly buzzÃ¢â¬âwhen I diedÃ¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ was equally eccentric and startling. Once again the imagery played a significant role in evoking this idea. The poem opens to a vibrant image of Dickinson lying in her bed surrounded by her nearest and dearest. Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢The eyes had wrung them dry, / And breathes were gathering sureÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢. I was struck by the startling contrast created here when she compares the stillness in the room to Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢the air/ Between the Heaves of StormsÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢ The poem strikingly describes the mental distraction posed by irrelevant details at even the most crucial momentsÃ¢â¬âeven at the moment of death. The poem then becomes even more bizarre and more macabre by transforming the tiny, normally disregarded fly into the figure of death itself, as the flyÃ¢â¬â¢s wing cuts the speaker off from the light until she cannot Ã¢â¬Å"see to see. Ã¢â¬ One of the most peculiar aspects of Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬ËI heard a Fly buzzÃ¢â¬âwhen I diedÃ¢â¬â Ã¢â¬ is the odd introduction of the fly into this environment. Again, the imagery plays a significant role. Flies can often be associated with death and decay and I think that is the message Dickinson was trying to convey by using the image of the fly in this particular poem. It is a poem that examines what is possible with hope and how far hope can carry a person. The poem uses a bird as a symbol to define the feeling that hope can give an individual. Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢Hope is the thing with feathers That perches in the soul,Ã Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢ This proves that Dickinson is eccentric as most people would never compare hope to Ã¢â¬Ëthe Thing with FeathersÃ¢â¬â¢. What is striking about the poem is its absolute simplicity, both in structure and in the words the poem presents. The idea of hope in the chillest land/And on the strangest sea, is a quite philosophical way of viewing the world. There is a contrast within the poem between hope, represented with words like warm, Soul sweetest and the pain of life shown in words like storm gale chillest. There is a battle between hope and the pain of life; it is clear which one comes out on top as hope can still be found through gales and storms. I think the poem is trying to convey that even though things can seem bleak, hope can always pull you through it. DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s poem Ã¢â¬ËI Could Bring You Jewels had I a mind to Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Ë is similar to Ã¢â¬ËHope is the Thing with FeathersÃ¢â¬â¢ in regards to the tone of the poem. It is a joyful, optimistic poem. In Ã¢â¬ËI Could Bring You JewelsÃ¢â¬â¢, Dickinson is corresponding with an unknown person in a coy, teasing tone. This poem is very different to most of DickinsonÃ¢â¬â¢s poetry because unlike many of her other poems she is not discussing death or loneliness and is instead, conversing with someone and seems to be enjoying herself. She is talking to this person about what gift she is going to buy him/her. Ã¢â¬ËI could bring You Odors from St. Domingo Ã¢â¬â Colors from Vera Cruz Berries of the Bahamas Ã¢â¬âÃ¢â¬Ë Although I would not consider Emily Dickinson to be my favourite poet, I found her work intriguing and uniquely eccentric. This could be because of the contrast between each of her poems and the different themes she uses in each poem. It may be as a result of its bleak, distressing nature. I personally felt that her fixation with physical and psychological death was quite shocking to be honest. The imagery Dickinson uses in her poetry could definitely be interpreted as very eccentric and startling. You would not expect all of the pain and hurt that is expressed in her poetry to be coming from a young woman from a well-to-do family who lived a very privileged existence.
Sunday, July 21, 2019
Non-Audit Services (NAS) Impact on Auditor Quality The provision of Non-Audit Services (NAS) by auditors to their audit clients reduces total costs, increases technical competence and motivates more intense competition. However, the recent corporate collapses in the US, Australia and elsewhere, was surprising our attention. The issue of Enron arouses great concerns on corporate governance revealing the audit independence problem when CPAs provide audit and NAS for the same clients. In the view of the fact, now a days because of NAS, the audit practice is questionable, whereas third parties believe that without independence, there is no value for accounting and auditing practices (Salehi, M., 2009). Therefore, regulatory has been drawn to the issues of auditor provided NAS and audit quality. In fact, these services do not necessarily damage auditor independence or the quality of NAS. Because of that, this paper contributes to seen the impact of NAS on auditor quality. INTRODUCTION OF NON-AUDIT SERVICES Traditionally, audits have provided Certified Public Accountant (CPA) firms with a large percentage of their overall revenues. However, for many years consulting services constituted a relatively minor portion of the firms revenues. In recent years, firms have expanded the scope of services they offer to audit and other clients such as NAS. Today NAS provided more than 50 percent (%) or more of the total revenues earned by the CPA firms. As Accounting Today in USA (2001, April) states, the income of accounting firms in 2000 showed that the proportion of international and national assurance service was 35%, whereas that of tax advisory service and management advisory service accounted for 21% and 44% respectively. It shows that management advisory service has become the source of total income of accounting firms. NAS generally refer to the services above or beyond the related audit services or services other than traditional CPA work. Many scholars in their studies use different terms for some relevant issues, namely Management Advisory Services (MAS) and Management Consulting Service (MCS). According to Purcell and Lifison (2003), NAS as traditional CPA works including assurance, investment assurance, commerce registration and accounting affairs, tax advisory service, management advisory service, finance and investment advisory service, public offering, mergers and acquisitions services, information technology advisory service and others. However, there are three basic principles of the prohibition of specified NAS is predicated: An auditor cannot function in the role of management; An auditor cannot audit its own work; and An auditor cannot serve in an advocacy role for its client. Most of the firms growth comes from NAS that CPAs provide for their clients when dealing with auditing affairs (Purcell and Lifison, 2003). So, what the motivation and attraction in provision of NAS to companies? Firth (1997a) contends that companies usually entrust outside consultants/firms for service in the following situation: One-off assignments Urgent problems Expert techniques Arbitrating initial disputes Seeking advise Decrease the risk overall management The economic causes for offering NAS include; Growth opportunities Personnel attraction and retention Meeting clients needs Risk diversification opportunities The Sarbanes-Oxley Act 2002 states that NAS provided to a client should not be more than 5% of the total auditors remuneration; otherwise, the client must obtain pre-approval from its audit committee, as non-audit fees paid in excess of this percentage would deem the auditor as not being independent. In Malaysia, under Malaysian Institute of Accountant (MIA) suggests that audit firms should not accept any appointment if they are also providing NAS to a client; whereby the provision of NAS would create a significant threat to their professional independence, integrity and objectivity. Effective June 1, 2001, Bursa Malaysia (previously known as Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange or KLSE) requires all listed companies to disclose non-audit fees in their annual reports. This is to protect shareholders interests and to increase corporate transparency. Consistent with the practices in other Commonwealth countries such as Australia and the United Kingdom (UK), which also have made it a requirement that non-audit fees of listed companies to be disclosed in the annual report. THE ISSUES OF NON-AUDIT SERVICES The main question/issue that arises when auditors provide or could provide both audit and NAS is whether the auditors are able to conduct their audits impartially, without being concerned about losing or failing to gain additional services, and the subsequent economic implications for the audit firm (Lee, 1993). Auditors seek to provide NAS because of the considerable economies of scope that ensue, i.e. cost savings that arise when both types of service are provided by the same firm. However, the result from several researchers show that the joint provision of audit and non-audit services gives rise to economic rents, which create incentives for audit firms to compromise their objectivity, e.g., waive audit adjustments, to retain audit clients (Palmrose 1986; Simunic 1984). For disclosure of NAS, investors should have enough information to enable them to evaluate the independence of a companys auditors. The proposed rules would bring the benefits of sunlight to the auditor independence area by requiring companies to disclose in their annual proxy statements certain information about, among other things, the NAS provided by their auditors and the participation of leased personnel in performing the companys annual audit. Generally a company required to disclose the fee paid for each NAS performed by its auditor and the fee charged for the annual audit. An exception to these general disclosure requirements is that issuers would not have to describe a NAS, nor disclose the fee for that service. In NAS and its independence, England and Australia have asked companies to publish audit and NAS fee in their annual financial report. According to Dopuch et al (2003) found that disclosure of NAS reduced the accuracy of investors beliefs of auditors independence in fact when independence in appearance was inconsistent with independence in fact. THE EFFECT OF NON-AUDIT SERVICES The dramatic increase in the nature, number, and monetary value of NAS that accounting firms provide to audit clients seen may affect their independence. Accordingly, the proposals specify certain NAS that, if provided by an accounting firm to an audit client, impair an auditors independence. Sami and Zhang (2003) investigated the effect of non-audit services on the backdrop of SECs revised rule that stressed perceived audit independence. They suggested that investors perceive that NAS impair auditors independence. According to Defond et.al. (2000) regulators are concerned about two effects of NAS. One is a fear that NAS fees make auditors financially dependent on their clients, and hence less willing to stand up to management pressure for fear of losing their business. The other is that the consulting nature of many NAS put auditors in managerial role. From the SEC regulations mandating fee disclosures (SEC, 2000), Auditors services relationship raises two types of independence concerns. First, more the auditor has at stake in its dealing with the audit client, particularly when the NAS relationship has the potential to generate significant revenues on top of the audit relationship. Second, certain types of NAS, when provided by the auditor, create inherent conflicts that are incompatible with objectivity. While, according to Firth (1997b), synergy would occur between auditor and auditee when an accounting firm provides audit and NAS simultaneously and consequently it would influence independe nce of auditor. Simunic (1984) indicates that CPA providing NAS would decrease the possibility for presenting the true financial statements and would influence the users of the statements on the recognition of CPA independence. It would further affect audit quality, the reliability of financial statements and the judgment of decision-making. How NAS Can Affect Auditor Independence? The dramatic expansion of NAS may fundamentally alter the relationships between auditors and their audit clients in two principal ways. First, as auditing becomes an ever-smaller portion of a firms business with its audit clients, auditors become increasingly vulnerable to economic pressures from audit clients. Large non-audit engagements may make it harder for auditors to be objective when examining their clients financial statements. Under any circumstances, it can be difficult for an auditor to make a judgment that works against the audit clients interest. Where making that judgment may imperil a range of service engagements of the firm, of which the audit is a fairly small part, it may be unrealistic to expect that an auditor can ignore completely what the firm stands to lose by the auditors action. Second, certain NAS, by their very nature, raise independence issues. Providing certain NAS to an audit client can lead an audit firm to have a mutual or conflicting interest with the client, audit its own work, advocate a position for the client, or function as an employee or management of the client. However, not all NAS pose the same risk to independence. Only these specific NAS that impair independence, namely: Bookkeeping or other services related to the audit clients accounting records or financial statements of the company. The prohibited services are: (a) Maintaining or preparing the companys accounting records; (b) Preparing the financial statements or the information that forms the basis of the financial statements that are required by the company and; (c) Preparing or originating source data underlying the companys financial statements. Design and implementation of financial information systems that aggregate source data or generate information that is significant to the financial statements taken as a whole, unless it is reasonable to conclude that the results of these services will not be subject to audit procedures during the audit of the companys financial statements. This rule does not preclude the external auditors from working on hardware or software systems that are unrelated to the companys financial statements or accounting records. Appraisal or valuation services, fairness opinions or contribution-in-kind reports or other opinions or reports in which the external auditors provide an opinion on the adequacy of consideration in a transaction, unless it is reasonable to conclude that the results of these services will not be subject to audit procedures during the audit of the companys financial statements. This rule does not prohibit the external auditors firm from providing such services for non-financial reporting purposes (e.g., transfer pricing studies, cost segregation studies and other tax-only valuations). Actuarial services involving amounts recorded in the financial statements and related accounts for the company where it is reasonably likely that the results of these services will be subject to audit procedures during an audit of the companys financial statements. This prohibition extends to providing the company with any actuarially-oriented advisory service involving the determination of amounts recorded in the financial statements and related accounts for the company other than assisting the company in understanding the methods, models, assumptions and inputs used in computing an amount. Internal audit outsourcing services relating to the internal accounting controls, financial systems or financial statements of the company. This prohibition on outsourcing does not preclude the external auditors from providing attest services related to internal controls, evaluating the companys internal controls during the audit or making recommendations for improvements to the controls, or management from engaging the external auditors to perform agreed-upon procedures engagements related to the companys internal controls. Management functions. This rule prohibits the external auditors from acting, temporarily or permanently, as a director, officer or employee of the company or performing any decision making, supervisory or monitoring function for the company. However, the external auditors may assess the effectiveness of the companys internal controls and recommend improvements in the design and implementation of internal controls and risk management controls. Human resources functions. The external auditors may not seek out prospective candidates for managerial, executive or director positions, act as negotiator on the companys behalf such as determining position, compensation or fringe benefits or other conditions of employment or undertake reference checks of prospective candidates. The external auditors may also not engage in psychological testing or other formal testing or evaluation or recommend or advise the company to hire a specific candidate for a specific job. Broker or dealer, investment adviser, or investment banking services. The external auditors are prohibited from serving as promoter or underwriter, making investment decisions on behalf of the company or otherwise having discretionary authority over the companys investments, or executing a transaction to buy or sell an investment of the company, or having custody of assets of the company. Legal services that could be provided only by someone licensed, admitted or otherwise qualified to practice law in the jurisdiction in which the service is provided. Expert services in an advocacy capacity unrelated to the audit. This precludes engagements that are intended to result in the external audit firms specialized knowledge, experience and expertise being used to support the audit clients positions in adversarial proceedings. This prohibits the external auditors from providing expert opinions or other services to the company or a legal representative of the company for the purpose of advocating the companys interests in litigation, or regulatory or administrative investigations or proceedings. This rule does not however preclude the company from engaging the external auditors to perform internal investigations or fact-finding engagements including forensic work and using the results of this work in subsequently initiated proceedings or investigations. Any other service that the Audit Committee determines is impermissible. According to Zulkarnain (2006), in Malaysia, scholars reported that only a small number of the shareholders and auditors that participated in their study believed that NAS provision increased their confidence in auditor independence. On the other hand, Teoh and Lim (1996) found that the provision of NAS was ranked as the second most important factor that undermines auditor independence. Arrunada (1999) pointed out that joint provision of audit and NAS would reduce overall costs, raises the technical quality of auditing, enhance competition and need not prejudice auditor independence or the quality of NAS, which would ultimately increase auditor independence (Goldman and Barlev, 1974). Based on the standard organization analysis, Arrunada (1999) showed that cost savings gained from the joint provision of audit and NAS will be transferred to customers as a decrease in price in both markets, and also that the provision of NAS would result in an increase in client- and firm-specific assets, where firm-specific assets would always have a positive effect on independence. This argument is supported by Grout et al. (1994), who argued that permitting auditors to perform joint services would reduce auditors dependence on a single client and encourage them to diversify as a consequence. Opponents to the joint provision of audit and NAS claimed that auditors would not perform their audit services objectively and that joint provision would impair perceived independence because ultimately they would be auditing their own work or acting as management (SEC, 2001), and managements power over the auditor could be increased due to auditors reliance on fees received (Canning and Gwilliam, 1999). Thus, it may influence their mental attitude, impartiality and objectivity, and independence of thought and action (Flint, 1988). The year 2002 had seen the biggest corporate collapses in the United States history that have raised lots of questions regarding auditors independence. For example, Arthur Andersen, being the auditor of the three biggest bankruptcies, Enron, WorldCom and Global Crossing, was heavily criticized for the collapses. It is said that Andersen was purportedly stressing more on non-audit services (NAS) than the audit itself. Auditing profession as a whole has been badly blamed for the collapses and changes were being proposed to ensure that audit firms reduce their over-reliance on NAS (The Star, 2002). As a result, to ensure the independence of auditors and to protect the interest of investors, the accounting profession in most countries has come up with a code of ethics as a guidelines for auditors competency and independence. In Malaysia, under MIA rules that become effective January 15, 2002, professional independence is considered impaired if total fees arising from provision of NAS to a client is 20% or more of the audit firms total annual fees received for two or more consecutive years. Before 2001, the regulators in Malaysia emphasized only on the disclosure of audit fees in the companies annual reports, as required by the Companies Act 1965. Several studies have examined whether the provision of non-audit services impairs audit quality. However, the previous studies report seems conflict in the results depending on the proxy of audit quality used. Teoh and Lim (1996) found that the disclosure on non-audit fees would influence and impair audit independence. A survey done by Gul and Teoh (1986) in Malaysia, suggests that the provision of NAS reduces public confidence in auditors independence. The auditor can be interpreted to compromise its independence if the provision of NAS is significantly tied to the issuance of clean audit opinion. Wines (1994) found that the auditors of those companies that received clean reports over the period derived a significantly higher proportion of their remuneration from NAS fees than the auditors of companies that received at least one audit qualification. This finding suggests that auditors are less likely to give qualified reports to clients financial statements when high levels of NAS f ees are involved. Firth (2002) found that companies that have relatively high consultancy fees are more likely to receive a clean audit opinion due to the non-audit work clearing up problem areas at the client company; or it might be due to high consultancy fees, thus impairing auditor independence. Ayoib, Rohami and Nor (2006) suggests that non-Big Five auditors are less independent when issuing audit reports for NAS purchased companies. This is also consistent with the preposition that large auditors are more independent than smaller auditors (DeAngelo, 1981). The results imply that audit opinion is dependent on the amount of NAS fee. It could be argued that small auditors could not resist against management pressure when issuing qualified opinion. Frankel, Johnson and Nelson (2002) suggest that their results provide evidence that auditor independence is compromised when clients pay high nonaudit fees relative to total fees. Securities and Exchange Commissions (SEC) concern about the growth of nonaudit fees relative to audit fees during the 1990s (e.g., see Levitt 2000). The SECs concern that the growth in the provision of nonaudit services compromises audit firm independence is based on the premise that the provision of nonaudit services increases the fees paid to the audit firm thereby increasing the economic dependence of the audit firm on the client. Based on the use of discretionary accruals and earnings benchmarks as proxies for biased financial reporting, Hollis, Ryan and Brian (2003) find evidence supporting the claim that auditors violate their independence as the result of clients paying high fees or having high fee ratios. DeAngelo (1981) models that as the economic bond between the audit firm and client increases the audit firms dependence on the client increases. Nonaudit fees further increase the client auditor bond by increasing the portion of audit firm wealth derived from a client (Simunic 1984; Beck et al. 1988). Nonaudit fees can also threaten independence when clients use them as contingent fees. Magee and Tseng (1990) note that while contingent fees are explicitly prohibited by audit standards, clients can create contingent fees by withholding profitable nonaudit services when the auditor does not allow the client to report its preferred financial condition. Costs and Benefits of Restricting Certain Non-Audit Services (proposals by SEC) There is increasing concern that the growth of NAS provided to audit clients affects the independence of auditors. If investors lose confidence in auditors ability or willingness to provide an unbiased and impartial examination of companies financial statements, then investors trust in the reliability of publicly available financial information, and in the integrity of the securities markets, may be damaged. Currently, accounting firms may not provide certain services to their audit clients without impairing their independence. The Securities Exchange and Commission (SEC) proposals extend and clarify those restrictions that should be used to evaluate the effect of NAS on an auditors independence and by designating certain NAS that if performed by an auditor for an SEC registrant that is an audit client, impair the auditors independence. The SECs proposals on the provision of NAS may affect to: 1. Benefits (a) Investors. For the reasons explained above, the SEC believes that the proposals will enhance auditor independence and thereby enhance the reliability and credibility of financial statements of public companies. SEC expect these benefits to inure primarily to investors who, if the proposals are adopted, should be able to review public companies financial statements with greater assurance that reliance on the statements will lead to more informed investment decisions. (b) Public Accounting Firms. SEC anticipates that the proposals will confer two primary benefits on public accounting firms: The proposals should clarify what NAS may be provided to an audit client without jeopardizing auditor independence. The proposals could improve competition in the market for the provision of NAS by public accounting firms. Because the restrictions on providing NAS to an audit client would apply equally to all accounting firms, the overall impact of the proposed restrictions may be to re-distribute the restricted NAS among the public accounting firms. 2. Costs SEC proposals on NAS may impose costs on issuers and public accounting firms. (a) Issuers. The proposed amendments have the effect of restricting issuers from purchasing certain NAS from their auditors. (b) Public Accounting Firms. Some public accounting firms provide a wide variety of services both to audit and non-audit clients. Our scope of services proposals is likely to affect these firms in several ways. The primary cost for these firms is that they individually may lose one source of revenue because they will no longer be able to sell certain NAS to their audit clients. CONCLUSION In conclusion, evidence suggests that although auditors have market based incentives to remain independent, auditor independence may be threaten when an auditor provide NAS to their clients and is reasonable that the NAS actually impair independence and quality of auditor. Hillison and Kennelley (1988) had recommended three additional alternatives to a total prohibition of NAS provision to audit clients: Offer NAS to non-audit clients only, Prohibit certain types of NAS, or Permit all types of NAS with full disclosure requirements. However, some professional and academic seen it seemed not much enough to protect auditor independence and It would further affect auditor quality. Thus, national and international professions should be redefined accounting and auditing regulation as well as scanted new regulation regarding to NAS and giving clear picture about that services to auditors as well as investors and heavy penalties, to whom overriding these regulation.
Saturday, July 20, 2019
Euthanasia has always been a taboo subject in some cultures. People all over the world so openly engage in conversation in matters of life. But when it comes to the other half of life, death, no one likes discussing it. Only terrorists claim how glorious death will be. These are some of the reasons that many people in society feel that euthanasia is morally wrong. Who is to say when it is time for someone to die or how much a person should suffer before they are allowed to end their life? How does someone know what the right age is that people should die? Should people be allowed to end their life when they feel their health is degenerating? Just keep in mind the word euthanasia comes from the Greek words eu Ã¢â¬Å"goodÃ¢â¬ and thanatos Ã¢â¬Å"death.Ã¢â¬ Literal translation is Ã¢â¬Å"good death.Ã¢â¬ There are a variety of meanings and ways to be euthanized. The meaning of euthanasia is the intentional killing by act or omission of a dependent human being for his or her alleged benefit. (The key word here is Ã¢â¬Å"intentionalÃ¢â¬ . If death is not intended, it is not an act of euthanasia.) Euthanasia by action is intentionally causing a personÃ¢â¬â¢s death by performing an action such as by giving a lethal injection. Euthanasia by omission is intentionally causing death by not providing necessary and ordinary (usual and customary) care or food and water. What euthanasia is not: there is no euthanasia unless the death is intentionally caused by what was done or not done. Thus, some medical actions that are often labeled "passive euthanasia" are no form of euthanasia, since the intention to take life is lacking. These acts include not commencing treatment that would not provide a benefit to the patient, withdrawing treatment that has been shown to be ineffective, too burdenso me or is unwanted, and the giving of high doses of pain-killers that may endanger life, when they have been shown to be necessary. All those are part of good medical practice, endorsed by law, when they are properly carried out. (Euthanasia definitions) Euthanasia also includes assisted suicide. If a doctor is involved with the death of a patient or person it is called physician assisted. Until recent times the word euthanasia was thought of as dying from old age or a natural death. In the nineteenth century is when physicians and politicians started using it as a life shortening death, taking years away from someone that could live a long life if cared for properly.
Wittgensteins 1913 Objections To Russells Theory of Belief: A Dialectical Reading :: Philosophy Philosophical Papers
Wittgenstein's 1913 Objections To Russell's Theory of Belief: A Dialectical Reading ABSTRACT: In what follows, I give (following Burton Dreben) a dialectical reading of his dismissal of metaphysics and of Wittgenstein's objections to Russell in 1913. I argue that Wittgenstein must be read as advocating no particular theory or doctrine Ã¢â¬â that is, philosophy is an activity and not a body of truths. Furthermore, this insistence is thoroughgoing. Put differently, a dialectical reading must be applied to one's own thought and talk. Characteristically, this sort of dialectical philosophy begins with the question, Is there any definiteness to what I am doing in my own thinking and speaking? Such a question undercuts the easy assumption that what we are doing may be expressed in a body of meaningful statements. In particular, I argue that Wittgenstein does not advocate any particular theory of language. A common reading of Wittgenstein is that he aims to prevent us from misusing language. This view assumes that, for Wittgenstein, the notion of a correct, acceptable o r meaningful use of language may be taken for granted. In my view, Wittgenstein does not take the notions of use of language and grammar and its misuse for granted. For Wittgenstein grammar underdetermines what it is to use or misuse language. I argue that an ethical critique is implicit in Wittgenstein's objections to any attempt to speak a priori about language and thought. Distrust of grammar is the first requisite of philosophizing. Notebooks, p. 106. The purpose of my talk this afternoon is to make clear what I shall call, following Burton Dreben, a dialectical reading of Wittgenstein's dismissal of metaphysics in the context of his pre-Tractatus objections to Russell's 1913 theory of belief. The earliest letters to Russell by Wittgenstein read naturally as presentations or proposals, to be read straightforwardly, as they stand. In this spirit, many authors interpret Wittgenstein as rejecting Russell. s attempts to talk about the structure of language and facts, and, further, as insisting that any attempt to state the limits of language is itself nonsense. On such a reading, Wittgenstein is reacting to Russell. s realist attempts to analyze the structure of facts into constituents and the structure of propositions into names by eliminating certain apparent symbols. Wittgenstein relegates their pseudo-uses to what is shown in the use of propositions. Ricketts writes: ....Russell takes relations to be a type of thing Ã¢â¬â they are constituents of facts, objects of acquaintance, and the designata of names.
Friday, July 19, 2019
The Four Humors Medieval doctors had quite an understanding of the human anatomy, considering their lack of equipment and knowledge. Most doctors in medieval times were philosophers more than actual medical doctors as most people know them today. Much of the knowledge they did acquire may have only been speculation, but quite a bit of it was due to concentrated observation. Many scientists studied wounds and diseases intensely and one scientist in particular, Empedocles, came to the conclusion that that body consists of four main fluids, or humors. These humors were yellow bile, black bile, phlegm and blood. If one of these components was out of proportion in the body, disease occurred. The imbalance was called isonomia, an idea which was also proposed by the Greek scientist Empedocles. Empedocles followed the Pythagorean school of natural philosophers rather than the Hippocratic school as most other physicians in the time did. He felt people must use their senses, even though they are not thoroughly reliable at all times. The other schools preferred more mystic ideas as opposed to natural ones. He also hypothesized that all substances and objects were made up of air, fire, water, and earth in different proportions. His proposal of the four humors of the body was later accepted by the Hippocratic school. Each of Empedocles' four humors was connected to one of the four seasons. Black bile was considered to be a part of autumn, blood was associated with spring, phlegm with winter and summer with yellow bile. Each humor was identified with its corresponding season due to the belief that each humor contained certain qualities. These qualities were closely related to the conditions of the seasons. Thus yellow bile was thought of as hot and dry like summer. Its opposite, phlegm was cold and moist like winter. Black Bile was cold and dry, while its opposite, blood, was hot and moist, like their counterparts, autumn and spring. As well as being connected with seasons, the four humors were also linked to four elements of nature. Black bile was associated with Earth, blood with air, fire with yellow bile and phlegm with water. This theory of nature and the body being interrelated was also proposed by Empedocles. Also each of these was also connected with the type of personality one presented. Too much earth made a person melancholic, which meant they were very depressed and saddened often.
Thursday, July 18, 2019
A. sativa is an economically important crop and ranks sixth in world cereal production after wheat, rice, maize barley and sorghum (FAO, 2012). It is an important role as food for human and feed for animals in central high lands of Ethiopia; it is one of the best dual-purpose cereal crops. Ethiopia as a region with wide altitudinal range, substantial temperature, and rainfall differences with diverse edaphic conditions create a wide range of agro-ecological conditions and microenvironments. Ethiopia, is considered as a secondary center of diversity for the oat, little has so far been done towards determining the genetic diversity, population structure and acid soil tolerance capacity screening of Ethiopian oat accessions. More nutritious and high yielding oat varieties are needed to run an efficient livestock industry as well as to secure human food security on which dependence of increasing population is taking ride. So, it becomes important to take advantage of the germplasm available to develop the superior cultivars for specific needs.Thus, the present study was undertaken to identify or catalogue oats genotypes along with the assessment of genetic diversity prevalent in different geographical regions in the country and from USA, Netherlands and Australia. The 176 oat accessions were used for the present investigation and they were sown in a RCBD design with two replications at each site. Observations were recorded on various morpho-agronomic characters viz; plant height (cm), internode length (cm), number of nodes per main stem of a plant, number of tillers /plant, Flag leaf length (cm), length of panicle (cm), number of spikelets per panicle, days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, biological yield per m2 (g), grain yield per m2 (g), and harvest index (%). This study also provides one of the first reported investigations of association analysis in a diverse population of oat, and thus, it will provide a useful benchmark for comparison with future results and with results from other species. Accurate assessment of the levels and patterns of genetic diversity has tremendous importance in the analysis of genetic variability in cultivars; identifying diverse parental combinations to create segregating progenies with maximum genetic variability for further selection; and introgression of genes from more exotic germplasm to broaden the genetic diversity of oats. The results obtained in our study provide a better understanding of genetic diversity along with its aluminium tolerance from different regions of Ethiopia as well as USA and Netherlands and Australia oat germplasm accessionsBased on molecular and agro morphological data there are no clear differentiation between populations; the population that were analyzed as genus level, A. sativa population and A. abyssinica population. The present study revealed that the oat accessions had significant wide range variability with respect to qualitative and quantitative traits. Moreover, the variations observed (both qualitatively and quantitatively) were fairly distributed across the regions/populations the accessions were collected from. These indicated potential genetic diversity prevalent in oat accessions, which can be harnessed future breeding and conservation endeavors in Ethiopia. A high genetic diversity exists in Ethiopian accessions as well as in USA and Netherlands- Australia accessions. There is a significantly higher variation within the populations than among the populations. In addition, there is a significantly higher variation within cultivated as well as within wild than among the cultivated and among wild. Furthermore, there is a significantly higher variation within species than among the species.The molecular diversity analysis was carried out using 19 SSR markers in all the 176 germplasm. The SSR markers showed clear differentiation between wild and cultivated, but they failed to differentiate from Ethiopian and USA and Netherlands-Australia cultivated oat accessions. The following molecular data were recorded for allelic parameters like, number of alleles/effective alleles; average heterozygosity; genetic diversity; and Polymorphic Information Content (PIC), demonstrating the availability of adequate genetic diversity in the wild oat accessions that can be exploited in the future. These variations in the allelic parameters were also noticeable across regions/populations sites. Peculiarly, the geographic populations, Shewa and Gondar and Arsi, had the most excessive number of effective alleles in 176 oat accessions the whole, 81 A. sativa accessions, and A. abyssinica accessions; and expected/unbiased expected heterozygosity measures. This indicated that these regions possess higher importance towards through introgression desirable genes into other oat genotypes in Ethiopia. The following molecular data were recorded for allelic parameters like, number of alleles/effective alleles; average heterozygosity; genetic diversity; and Polymorphic Information Content (PIC), demonstrating the availability of adequate genetic diversity in the wild oat accessions that can be exploited in the future. These variations in the allelic parameters were also noticeable across regions/populations sites. Peculiarly, the geographic populations, Shewa and Gondar and Arsi, had the most excessive number of effective alleles in 176 oat accessions the whole, 81 A. sativa accessions, and A. abyssinica accessions. This indicated that these regions possess higher importance towards through introgression desirable genes into other oat genotypes in Ethiopia.Cluster analysis grouped 176 genotypes into five clusters whereby the individuals within any one cluster are more closely related than are individuals in different clusters. Our expectations were, the hexaploid specie might be grouped together and tetraploid species may have clustered together, while hexaploid and tetraploid species should have to be clustered separately since they possessed different genome. unlikely to our expectation the result showed that hexaploid and tetraploid were grouped together. Clustering these groups were similar both in molecular and agro-morphological data. Similar results were found for molecular data. The DARwin 5.0 software was used to generate the dendrogram. All the genotypes were clustered into 3 clusters of different sizes. On the other hand, results of PCA and various recorded values of important agro-morphological descriptors were jointly used to determine the groups identified in the molecular analysis at a STRUCTURE present k=2. As a result, the first group, USA and the Netherlands Ã¢â¬â Australia belonged to the cultivated oats, A. sativa; whilst the second groups were predominated by accessions from the Ethiopia, both cultivated and wild. Consequently, it was concluded that Cultivated oat groups had higher genetic diversity than their respective Wild oat counterparts in Ethiopian oat germplasm. The current study showed that Root Length (RL) was affected more by Al toxicity. Lower Al toxicity levels less than 50 Ã µM had no significant effect on the growth performance in most oat accessions, while the growth of RL showed a decline with increasing Al concentration and toxicity levels. The impact of Al toxicity on oats germplasm became influential upon toxicity level increments. The optimum Al3+ concentration for tolerance level could be 112.5 Ã µM oats. Thus, these accessions should not be recommended in area where soil acidity is predominant. However, A. vaviloviana accessions were highly Al tolerant as revealed by root growth performance and can be promoted in area where soil acidity is a challenge. This study is the first of its kind to evaluate the performance of Ethiopian oats to Al-toxicity. The study clearly showed the possibility of developing lines and genotypes that can tolerate acidity in Ethiopian context and support agricultural development in acidic soil area in the country. In conclusion, the present study generated unique outcomes in terms of directing the phenotypic and molecular genetic diversity; population structure of the genepools; and to identity of sub-groups up to the species level. It is considered to put the platform for future breeding and genetic resource conservation programs in Ethiopia.